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To inform the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) fourth Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows, we reviewed estimates using updated data on climate finance flows for the years 2017 and 2018, as previously reported in the Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2019.
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The objective of this paper is to describe the updated methodological guidance for conducting a JBI scoping review, with a focus on new updates to the approach and development of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (the PRISMA-ScR).
Scoping reviews are an increasingly common approach to informing decision-making and research based on the identification and examination of the literature on a given topic or issue. Scoping reviews draw on evidence from any research methodology and may also include evidence from non-research sources, such as policy. In this manner, scoping reviews provide a comprehensive overview to address broader review questions than traditionally more specific systematic reviews of effectiveness or qualitative evidence. The increasing popularity of scoping reviews has been accompanied by the development of a reporting guideline: the PRISMA-ScR. In 2014, the JBI Scoping Review Methodology Group developed guidance for scoping reviews that received minor updates in 2017 and was most recently updated in 2020. The updates reflect ongoing and substantial developments in approaches to scoping review conduct and reporting. As such, the JBI Scoping Review Methodology Group recognized the need to revise the guidance to align with the current state of knowledge and reporting standards in evidence synthesis.
Between 2015 and 2020, the JBI Scoping Review Methodology Group expanded its membership; extensively reviewed the literature; engaged via annual face-to-face meetings, regular teleconferences, and email correspondence; sought advice from methodological experts; facilitated workshops; and presented at scientific conferences. This process led to updated guidance for scoping reviews published in the JBI Manual for Evidence Synthesis. The updated chapter was endorsed by JBI's International Scientific Committee in 2020.
The updated JBI guidance for scoping reviews includes additional guidance on several methodological issues, such as when a scoping review is (or is not) appropriate, and how to extract, analyze, and present results, and provides clarification for implications for practice and research. Furthermore, it is aligned with the PRISMA-ScR to ensure consistent reporting.
On June 15, 2022, EPA issued interim updated drinking water health advisories for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) that replace those EPA issued in 2016. PFOA and PFOS are members of a chemical group called per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The updated advisory levels, which are based on new science and consider lifetime exposure, indicate that some negative health effects may occur with concentrations of PFOA or PFOS in water that are near zero. These interim health advisories will remain in place until EPA establishes a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation.
Update on recommendations on antiretroviral regimens for treating and preventing HIV infection: In 2016, WHO published the consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection and recommended tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) (or emtricitabine, FTC) + efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg as the preferred first- line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for adults and adolescents. Since that time, scientific evidence and programmatic experience have accumulated on the use of dolutegravir (DTG) in both first- and second-line ART, including during pregnancy and tuberculosis co-treatment, and for children. In 2018, these guidelines were reviewed to provide updated guidance on preferred option for these populations which now include DTG and raltegravir (RAL), and updated recommendations on using ARV drugs for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis. Annex 3 above links to the ARV dosing guidance for children, adolescents and adults.
In Washington, indoor mask requirements will be lifted as of 11:59 p.m. on March 11. This new date does not change any other aspect of the updated mask requirements Inslee announced last week. Masks will still be required in certain settings including health care, corrections facilities and long-term care facilities. The Washington State Department of Health will be issuing new guidance for K-12 schools next week so schools can prepare to implement updated safety protocols.